Sura 9
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Repentence (At-Taubah)

1A declaration of immunity from Allah and His apostle to those of the pagans with whom you have contracted mutual alliances.1a

2Go then for four months backwards and forwards throughout the land, but know that you cannot frustrate Allah, Allah will cover with shame those who reject him.

3And an announcement from Allah and His apostle to the people on the day of the great pilgrimage that Allah and His apostle dissolve obligations with the pagans. If then you repent it were best for you, but if you turn away, know that you cannot frustrate Allah. And proclaim a grievous penalty to those who reject faith.

1Baraatun minallahi wa rasulihi ilal lazina ahaduttum minal mushrikina.

2Fasihu filardi arbaata ashhurin walamu annakum gairu mujizillahi wa annallaha mukhuzil kafirina.

3Wa azanun minallahi wa rasulihi ila nasi yaumal hajjil akbari annallaha bariun minal mushrikina wa rasuluhu fa in tubtum fa huwa khairul lakum wa in tawallaitum falamu annakum gairu mujizillahi wa bashshiril lazina kafaru bi azabin alimin.

1a. Several reasons have been given for the absence of the usual chapter opening, “In the name of Allah...” There are those who excuse that by saying this is not actually a chapter; rather, it is a continuation of the previous chapter and therefore did not need the usual intro.

The most plausible explanation was given to me by Imam Muqtar decades ago. As a devout leader and teacher, he warned us (students) about the danger in reading this chapter with the usual intro. He said that God was angry at the Muslims for signing a treaty with the unbelievers apart from Allah’s direction when he revealed the chapter, therefore if anyone read it with the usual intro, he may go mad.

This chapter has also been referred to as “al Tauba” the “Repentance” signifying Muhammad’s call to repentance.

4But the treaties are not dissolved with those pagans with whom you have entered into alliance and who have not subsequently failed you in anything nor aided anyone against you. So fulfill your engagements with them to the end of their term: for Allah loves the righteous.

5But when the forbidden months are past, then fight and slay the pagans wherever you find them and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every stratagem, but if they repent and establish regular prayers, and practice regular charity, then open the way for them, for Allah is most forgiving, most merciful.1

4Illal lazina ahattum minal mushrikina summa lam yanqusukum shaian wa lam yutuahiru alaikum ahadan fa atimmu ilaihim ahdahum ila muddatihim innallaha yuhibbul muttaqina.

5Fa izansalakhal ashhurul hurumu faqutulul mushrikina haisu wajattumuhum wa khuzuhum wahsuruhum waqudu lahum kulla marsadin fa in tabu wa aqamu sualata wa atawu zakata fa khallu sabilahum innallaha gafurun rahimun

1. The three conditions given to the non‑Muslims is evident here, repent, submit and or be killed. Those who repent face no retribution, those who submit and agree to pay the jizya have about a four month probation, if the do not maintain their contract, after four months, the Qur’an then tells the Muslims to lie in wait for them, pursue them, fight them into submission, if they repent, they are to be forgiven because Allah is oft‑forgiven and most merciful even towards pagans.

[Commentary continues below.]

6And if one among the pagans ask you for asylum, grant it to him so that he may hear the word of Allah and then escort him to where he can be secure, that is because they are men without knowledge.

7How can there be a league before Allah and His apostle with the pagans, except those with whom you made a treaty near the sacred mosque? As long as these stand true to you stand true to them. For Allah loves the righteous.2

8How can there be such a league, seeing that if they get an advantage over you they respect not in you the ties either of kinship or of covenant? With their mouths they entice you, but their hearts are averse from you; and most of them are rebellious and wicked.

6Wa in ahadun minal mushrikina sutajaraka fa ajiruhu hatta yasmaa kalamallahi summa abuliguhu mamanahu zalika bi annahum qaumul la yalamuna.

7Kaifa yakunu lil mushrikina ahudun indallahi wa inda rasulihi illal lazina ahattum indal masjidil harami famasutaqamu lakum fastaqimu lahum innallaha yuhibbul muttaqina.

8Kaifa wa inyattuharu alaikum la yaruqubu fikum illan wa la zimmahtan yurudunakum bi afwahihim wa taba qulubuhum wa aksaruhum fasiquna.

2. Some of the pagans were very treacherous in their dealings with the Muslims, they signed treaties when it favored them, they broke them when it no longer favored them. The condition heretofore mentioned is only for those who maintain their stance in keeping their treaty to the Muslims.

[Commentary continues below.]

9The signs of Allah have they sold for a miserable price and have hindered from His way, evil indeed are the deeds they have done.

10In a believer they respect not the ties either of kinship or of covenant. It is they who have transgressed all bounds.

11But if they repent, establish regular prayers, and practice regular charity, they are your brethren in faith, thus We explain signs in detail for those who understand.

12And if they violate their oaths after their covenant and taunt you for your faith, fight the chiefs of unfaith, for their oaths are nothing to them, that thus they may be restrained.3

9Isutarau bi ayatillahi samanan qalilan fa suaddu an sabilihi innahum saa ma kanu yamaluna.

10La yaruqubuna fi muminin illan wa la zimmahtan ulaika humul mutaduna.

11Fa in tabu wa aqamu sualata wa atawu zakata fa ikhwanukum fi dini wa nufassilul ayati li qaumin yalamuna.

12Wa in nakasu aimanahum min badi ahudihim wa taanu fi dinikum fa qatilu aimmatal kufri innahum la aimana lahum laallahum yantahuna.

3. Covenants are often made between representative leadership and is made binding on all citizens of a particular community. Therefore, if a covenant is broken such leaders must be held responsible as is the case here.

[Commentary continues below.]

13Will you not fight people who violated their oaths, plotted to expel the apostle, and took the aggressive by being the first to assault you? Do you fear them? No, it is Allah whom you should more justly fear if you believe.

14Fight them and Allah will punish them by your hands, cover them with shame, help you over them, heal the breasts of believers.

15And still the indignation of their hearts. For Allah will turn to whom He will, and Allah is all knowing, all wise.

13Ala tuqatiluna qauman nakasu aimanahum wa hammu bi ikhuraji rasuli wa hum badaukum awwala marrahtin antakhushaunahum fallahu ahaqqu an takhushauhu in kuntum muminina.

14Qatiluhum yuazzibhumullahu bi aidikum wa yukhzihim wa yansurkum alaihim wa yashfissudura qaumin muminina.

15Wa yuzuhib gaiza qulubihim wa yatuballahu ala ma yashau wallahu alimun hakimun.

[Commentary continues below.]

16Do you think that you shall be abandoned as though Allah did not know those among you who strive with might and main, and take none for friends and protectors except Allah His apostle, and the believers? But Allah is well acquainted with what you do.

17It is not for such as join gods with Allah to visit or maintain the mosques of Allah while they witness against their own souls to infidelity. The works of such bear no fruit: in fire shall they dwell.4

18The mosques of Allah shall be visited and maintained by such as believe in Allah, and the last day, establish regular prayers, and practice regular charity, and fear none except Allah. It is they who are expected to be on true guidance.

16Am hasibtum an tutraku wa lamma yalamillahul lazina jahadu minkum wa lam yattakhizu min dunillahi wa la rasulihi wa lal muminina walijahtan wallahu khabirun bima tamaluna.

17Ma kana lil mushrikina ayamuru masajidallahi shahidina ala anfusihim bil kufuri ulaika habituat amaluhum wa fi nari hum khaliduna.

18Innama yamuru masajidallahi man amana billahi wal yaumil akhiri wa aqama sualata wa ata zakata wa lam yakhusha illallaha fa asa ulaika anyakunu minal muhutadina.

4. The Qureish tribe were the custodians of the Kabah in pre‑Islamic Arabia. In those days it contained 365 idols (al‑illahs which later became Allah). The prominent of these they called the daughters of Allah, thus they joined partners with Allah. Because they were the custodians, they were also responsible for the upkeep of the Kabah and they forbade the Muslims from worshiping in the shrine. When the Muslims became strong, they conquered the Qureish tribe and took over the upkeep of the Kabah. This verse is revealed against the Qureishites still keeping charge of the Kabah.

[Commentary continues below.]

19Do you make the giving of drink to pilgrims or the maintenance of the sacred mosque equal to those who believe in Allah and the last day, and strive with might and main in the cause of Allah? They are not comparable in the sight of Allah, and Allah guides not those who do wrong.

20Those who believe and suffer exile and strive with might and main in Allah’s cause with their goods and their persons have the highest rank in the sight of Allah, They are the people who will achieve salvation.

21Their Lord gives them glad tidings of a mercy from Himself, of His good pleasure and of gardens for them wherein are delights that endure.

22They will dwell therein forever. Verily, in Allah’s presence is the greatest reward.

19Ajaaltum siqayatal hajji wa imaratal masujidil harami kaman amana billahi wal yaumil akhiri wa jahada fi sabilillahi la yasutawuna indallahi wallahu la yahdil qauma tualimina.

20Allazina amanu wa hajaru wa jahadu fi sabilillahi bi amwalihim wa anfusihim atuamu darajatan indallahi wa ulaika humul faizuna.

21Yubashshiruhum rabbuhum bi rahmatin minhu wa ridwani wa jannatil lahum fiha naimun muqimun.

22Khalidina fiha abadan innallaha indahu ajrun attimun.

[Commentary continues below.]

23O you who believe. Take not for protectors your fathers, and your brothers, if they love infidelity above faith, if any of you do so, they do wrong.

24Say, if it be that your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your mates, or your kindred, the wealth that you have gained, the commerce in which you fear a decline, or the dwellings in which you delight are dearer to you than Allah or His apostle, or the striving in his cause, then wait until Allah brings about His decision, and Allah guides not the rebellious.

23Ya ayyuhal lazina amanu la tattakhizu abaakum wa ikhwanakum auliyaa inistahabbul kufra alal imani wa ma yatawallahum minkum fa ulaika humu tualimuna.

24Qul in kana abaukum wa abnaukum wa ikhwanukum wa azwajukum wa ashiratukum wa amwalu niqtara futumuha wa tijaratun takhshauna kasadaha wa masakinu tarudaunaha ahabba ilaikum minallahi wa rasulihi wa jihadin fi sabilihi fa tarabbasu hatta yatiyallahu bi amrihi wallahu la yahdil qaumal fasiqina.

[Commentary continues below.]

25Assuredly Allah helped you in many battlefields and on the day of Hunain. Behold, your great numbers elated you but they availed you nothing, the land for all that it is wide did constrain you and you turned back in retreat.

26But Allah poured His calm on the apostle and on the believers, and sent down forces which you saw not, He punished the unbelievers, thus does He reward those without faith.

27Again will Allah after this turn to whom He will, for Allah is always forgiving, most merciful.

25Laqadu nassarakumullahu fi mawatina kasirahti wa yauma hunainin izu ajabatkum kasuratukum falam tuguni ankum shaian wa daqatu alaikumulardu bima rahubat summa wallaitum mudbirina.

26Summa anzalallahu sakinatahu ala rasulihi wa alal muminina wa anzala junudal lam tarauha wa azzaba lazina kafaru wa zalika jazaul kafirina.

27Summa yatubullahu min badi zalika ala ma yashau wallahu gafurun rahimun.

[Commentary continues below.]

28O you who believe, truly the pagans are unclean, so let them not after this year of theirs approach the sacred mosque. And if you fear poverty soon will Allah enrich you if He wills out of his bounty, for Allah is all knowing, all wise.

29Fight those who believe not in Allah, nor the last day, nor hold that forbidden which has been forbidden by Allah and His apostle, nor acknowledge the religion of truth even if they are of the people of the book, until they pay the jizya with willing submission and feel themselves subdued.5

28Ya ayyuhal lazina amanu innamal mushrikuna najasun fala yaqurabul masujidal harama bada amihim haza wa in khiftum ailatan fa saufa yugunikumullahu min fadlihi in shaa innnallaha alimun hakimun.

29Qatilul lazina la yuminuna billahi wa la bi l yaumilakhiri wa yuharrimuna ma harramallahu wa rasuluhu wa la yadinuna dinal haqqi minal lazina utul kitaba hatta yutul jizuyata anyadin wa hum sagiruna

5. This is a call to take up arms against the non‑Muslims without any exceptions. The Muslims do not need any provocation, except that those they fight against are non‑Muslims. Some Muslims may argue that Christians and Jews were not included in these attacks, however the last sentence betrays that when the Qur’an stated that they should be fought be fought against even if they are of the people of the book. This spurred the Muslims on to massacre whole communities in response to this call. Fiqh‑us‑Sunnah Fiqh 1.77:

Ibn ‘Umar related that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said, “I have been ordered to kill the people until they testify that there is no god except Allah, and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and they establish prayer and pay the zakah. If they do that, their blood and wealth are protected from me save by the rights of Islam. Their reckoning will be with Allah.”

(Related by al‑Bukhari and Muslim.)

Umm Salamah related that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, “There will be rulers over you who will do good and evil things. Whoever hates these (latter) acts will be innocent of them. Whoever denies them will be safe, but (not) one who accepts and follows them.” They asked, “Should we kill them?” He said, “Not if they pray.” (Related by Muslim.) Therefore, he made it unlawful to kill even an unjust ruler who observes his prayers.

30And the Jews call Uzair a son of Allah, and the Christians call Christ the son of Allah. That is a saying from their mouths, in this they imitate what the unbelievers of old used to say. Allah’s curse be on them: how they are deluded away from the truth.6

31They take their priests and their anchorites to be their lords in derogation of Allah, and Christ the son of Mary. Yet they were commanded to worship but one Allah, there is no god but He. Praise and glory to him, far is He from having the parents they associate with him.

32Fain would they extinguish Allah’s light with their mouths but Allah will not allow but that His light should be perfected even though the unbelievers may detest it.

33It is He who has sent His apostle with guidance and religion of truth, to proclaim it over all religions even though the pagans may detest it.7

30Wa qalatil Yahudu Uzairun ibnullahi wa qalatin Nasaral Masihubnullahi zalika qauluhum bi afwahihim yudahiuna qaula lazina kafaru min qablu qatalahumullahu anna yufakuna.

31Ittakhazu ahubarahum wa ruhubanahum arubaban min dunillahi wal Masihabuna Maryama wa ma umiru illa liyabudu ilahan wahidan la ilaha illa huwa subhanahu amma yushrikuna.

32Yuriduna anyuttufiu nurallahi bi afwahihim wa yaballahu illa anyutimma nurahu wa lau karihal kafiruna.

33Huwal lazi arusala rasulahu bil huda wa dinil haqqi liyutuairahu alla dini kullihi wa lau karihal mushrikuna.

6. The reference to Jesus as the Son of God, you have heard before, but Uzair (Ezra) as the Son of God may be new to you, on the other hand Jesus as the Son of Allah has no historical source, the Jews know of no such claim historically. In most of the references, the term is used figuratively in describing the relationship between God and a particular person or persons. On the other hand, it may be used in cases where God adopts others as His children based on their obedience to Him. So in none of the cases does the word carry a literal meaning.

7. Islam is not claiming to be just another religion, rather it is claiming to be a substitute for all other religions. Claiming supremacy to all other religions makes Islam an exclusive religion. This would have been acceptable except that has misrepresented itself in historical and theological claims. It is not nor does it have the truth. It may claim parallelity to other religion but no parallel lines ever do meet. Similarities and sameness are never the same. Islam may be similar to other religions but is not the same with any of them.

[Commentary continues below.]

34O you who believe, there are indeed many among the priests and anchorites who in falsehood devour the substance of men and hinder them from the way of Allah. And there are those who bury gold and silver and spend it not in the way of Allah, announce unto them a most grievous penalty.

35On the day when heat will be produced out of what is in the fire of hell, and with it will be branded their foreheads, their flanks, and their backs. “This is that which you buried for yourselves: taste then the treasures you buried.”

34Ya ayyuh al lazina amanu inna kasiran minal ahubari wa ruhubani layakuluna amwala nasi bil batili wa yasudduna an sabilillahi wallazina yakunizuna zahaba wal fiddata wa la yunfiqunaha fi sabilillahi fa bashshirhum bi azabin alimin.

35Yauma yuhuma alaiha fi nari jahannama fa tukwa biha jibahuhum wa junubuhum wa ttuhuruhum haza ma kanazutum li anfusikum fa zuqu ma kuntum takunizuna

[Commentary continues below.]

36The number of months in the sight of Allah is twelve, so ordained by Him the day He created the heavens and the earth, of them four are sacred, that is the straight usage. So wrong not yourselves therein and fight the pagans all together as they fight you all together. But know that Allah is with those who restrain themselves.8

37Verily, the transposing is an addition to unbelief, the unbelievers are led to wrong thereby, for they make it lawful one year and forbidden another year in order to adjust the number of months forbidden by Allah and make such forbidden ones lawful. The evil of their course seems pleasing to them. But Allah guides not those who reject faith

36Inna iddata shuhuri indallahi suna ashara shahuran fi kitabillahi yauma khalaqa samawati walarda minha arubaatun hurumun zalika dinul qayyimu fala tattulimu fihinna anfusakum wa qatilul mushrikina kaffatan kama yuqatilunakum kaffahtan walamu annallaha maal muttaqina.

37Innama nasiu ziyadatun fil kufuri yuddallu bihil lazina kafaru yuhillunahu ama wa yuharrimunahu amal liyuwatiu iddata ma harramallahu fa yuhilla ma harramallahu zuyyina lahum suu amalihim wallahu la yahudil qaumal kafirina.

8. The were four sacred months according to the calculation of the Muslims, the 1st, 7th, 11th and 12th. In these months fighting were forbidden, however, the Pagan Arabs used to switch the months, in order to gain an unfair advantage over the Muslims who are here told to fight the pagans any time they start a fight, even disregarding the sacred months.

[Commentary continues below.]

38O you who believe, what is the matter with you then when you are asked to go forth in the cause of Allah, you cling heavily to the earth? Do you prefer the life of this world to the hereafter? But little is the comfort of this life as compared with the hereafter.

39Unless you go forth, He will punish you with a grievous penalty and put others in your place, but Him you would not harm in the least. For Allah has power over all things.

38Ya ayyuhal lazina amanu ma lakum iza qila lakum nufiru fi sabilillahi saqaltum illalardi araditum bil hayati dunya mina lakhirahti fama mataul hayati dunya filakhirati illa qalilun.

39Illa tanufiru yuazzibukum azaban aliman wa yasutabudil qauman gairakum wa la tadurruhu shaian wallahu ala kulli shaiin qadirun.

[Commentary continues below.]

40If you help not your leader, it does not matter, for Allah indeed helped him, when the unbelievers drove him out, he had no more than one companion: the two were in the cave and he said to his companion “have no fear for Allah is with us,” then Allah sent down his peace upon him and strengthened him with forces which you saw not, and humbled to the depths the word of the unbelievers. But the word of Allah is exalted to the heights, for Allah is exalted in might, wise.

41Go forth lightly or heavily and strive and struggle with your goods and your persons in the cause of Allah. That is best for you if you knew.

42If there had been immediate gain and the journey easy, they would without doubt have followed you, but the distance was long on them. They would indeed swear by Allah, “If we only could, we should certainly have come out with you,” they would destroy their own souls, for Allah knows that they are certainly lying.

40Illa tanusuruhu faqadu nasarahullahu izu akhurajahu lazina kafaru saniyasnaini izu huma fil gari izu yaqulu lisahibihi la tahzan innallaha maana fa anzalallahu sakinatahu alaihi wa ayyadahu bi junudil lam tarauha wa jaala kalimata lazina kafaru sufula wa kalimatullahi hiyal ulya wallahu azizun hakimun.

41Inufiru khifafan wa siqala wa jahidu bi amwalikum wa anfusikum fi sabilillahi zalikum khairul lakum inkuntum talamuna.

42Lau kana aradan qariban wa safaran qasidan lattabauka wa lakim baudatu alaihimu shuqqahtu wa sayahulifuna billahi lawistatuana lakharajuna maakum yuhlikuna anfusahum wallahu yalamu innahum lakazibuna.

[Commentary continues below.]

43Allah give you grace. Why did you grant them exemption until those who told the truth were seen by you in a clear light and you had proved the liars?

44Those who believe in Allah and the last day ask you for no exemption from fighting with their goods and persons. And Allah knows well those who do their duty.

45Only those ask you for exemption who believe not in Allah and the last day, and whose hearts are in doubt, so that they are tossed in their doubts to and fro.

46And if they had intended to come out they would certainly have made some preparation therefor; but Allah was averse to their being sent forth, so He made them lag behind and they were told “sit among those who sit inactive.”

43Afallahu anka lima azinta lahum hatta yatabayyana laka lazina suadaqu wa talamal kazibiyuna.

44La yasutazinuka lazina yuminuna billahi wal yaumil akhiri anyujahidu bi amwalihim wa anfusihim wallahu alimum bil muttaqina.

45Innama yasutazinuka lazina la yuminuna billahi wal yaumi lakhiri warutabatu qulubuhum fahum fi raibihim yataraddaduna.

46Wa lau aradul khuruja laaaddu lahu uddatan wa lakin karihallahumbiaahum fa sabbatahum wa qilaqudu maal qaidina.

[Commentary continues below.]

47If they had come out with you they would not have added to your strength, but only made for disorder, hurrying to and fro in your midst and sowing sedition among you, and there would have been some among you who would have listened to them. But Allah knows well those who do wrong.

48Indeed they had plotted sedition before and upset matters for you until the truth arrived and the decree of Allah became manifest much to their disgust.

49And among them is a man who says, “Grant me exemption and draw me not into trial.” Have they not fallen into trial already? And indeed hell surrounds the unbelievers.

47Lau kharaju fikum ma zadukum illa khabalan wa laauddau khilalakum yabugunakumul fitnahta wa fikum sammauna lahum wallahu alimun bi tualimina.

48Laqadibtagawul fitnata min qablu wa qallabu lakal umura hatta jaal haqqu wa zahara amurullahi wa hum karihuna.

49Wa minhum ma yaquluza li wa la taftinni ala fil fitnati saqatu wa inna jahannama lamuhitatum bil kafirina.

[Commentary continues below.]

50If good befalls you, it grieves them; but if a misfortune befalls you, they say, “We took indeed our precautions beforehand” and they turn away rejoicing.

51Say, “Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us, He is our protector,” and on Allah let the believers put their trust.9

52Say, “Can you expect for us any fate other than one of two glorious things martyrdom or victory? But we can expect for you either that Allah will send His punishment from Himself or by our hands. So wait, we too will wait with you.”

53Say, “Spend willingly or unwillingly, not from you will it be accepted, for you are indeed a people rebellious and wicked.”

50In tusibuka hasanatun tasuhum wa in tusibuka musibatu yaqulu qadu akhazuna amurana min qabulu wa yatawallau wa hum farihuna.

51Qul la yusibana illa ma kataballahu lana huwa maulana wa alallahi faluyatawakkalil muminuna.

52Qul hal tarabbassuna bina illa ihdal husunayaini wa nahnu natarabbasu bikum anyusibakumu llahu bi azabin min indihi au bi aidina fatarabbasu inna maakum mutarabbisuna.

53Qulu anufiqu tauan au karhal la yutaqabbala minkum innakum kuntum qauman fasiqina.

9. What has Allah decreed for them? They may be thinking of victory over their enemies at this stage, however, we need to take it further and look into some of what Allah has ordained. Muslims are strong believers in divine decrees. They believe that everything that happens is according to the will of God. So strong is this belief that thieves may use it as a scapegoat. “It was decreed for them to steal” and they could not do anything about that. This doctrine is called “Fatalism” not predestination as some purport. Here are a few examples of some of what Allah has decreed:

1. Al‑Muwatta Hadith 46.4:

Yahya related to me from Malik from Ziyad ibn Sad from Amr ibn Muslim that Tawus al‑Yamani said, “I found some of the companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saying ‘Everything is by decree.’ “ Tawus added, “I heard Abdullah ibn Umar say that The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. said, ‘Everything is by decree, even incapacity and ability,’ (or ‘ability and incapacity’).”

2. Al‑Muwatta Hadith 46.1;

Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu’z‑Zinad from al‑Araj from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Adam and Musa argued and Adam got the better of Musa. Musa rebuked Adam, ‘You are Adam who led people astray and brought them out of the Garden.’ Adam said to him, ‘You are Musa to whom Allah gave knowledge of everything and whom he chose above people with His message.’ He said, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘Do you then censure me for a matter which was decreed for me before I was created?’ “

3. Sahih Al‑Bukhari’s Hadith 8.260 narrated by Ibn Abbas:

I have not seen a thing resembling ‘lamam’ (minor sins) than what Abu Huraira narrated from the Prophet who said “Allah has written for Adam’s son his share of adultery which he commits inevitably. The adultery of the eyes is the sight (to gaze at a forbidden thing), the adultery of the tongue is the talk, and the inner self wishes and desires and the private parts testify all this or deny it.”

4. Sahih Al‑Bukhari’s Hadith 8.609 narrated by Ibn Abbas:

I did not see anything so resembling minor sins as what Abu Huraira said from the Prophet, who said, “Allah has written for the son of Adam his inevitable share of adultery whether he is aware of it or not: The adultery of the eye is the looking (at something which is sinful to look at), and the adultery of the tongue is to utter (what it is unlawful to utter), and the inner self wishes and longs for (adultery) and the private parts turn that into reality or refrain from submitting to the temptation.”

5. Surat‑al‑ An’am 120;

Eschew all sin open or secret: those who earn sin will get due recompense for their “earnings.”

6:164:

Every soul draws the meed of its acts on none but itself: no bearer of burdens can bear the burden of another.

Surat‑al‑Maryam 19:71

Not one of you but will pass over it: this is with thy Lord a Decree which must be accomplished.

What Allah has decreed is that because no one is exempt from sins and faults, not a single soul will escape the fire of hell. This is according to the Qur’an, in the Bible however, we know that God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son that whosoever believes on Him will not perish but have everlasting life.

54And the only reasons why their contributions are not accepted are, that they reject Allah and His apostle, that they come to prayer without earnestness, and that they offer contributions unwillingly.

55Let not their wealth nor their sons dazzle you, in reality Allah’s plan is to punish them with these things in this life, and that their souls may perish in their denial of Allah.

56And they swear by Allah that they are indeed of you; but they are not of you, yet they are afraid.

57If they could find a place to flee to or caves or a place of concealment, they would turn straightway thereto with an obstinate rush.

54Wa ma manaahum an tuqubala minhum nafaqatuhum illa annahum kafaru billahi wa bi rasulihi wa la yatuna sualata illa wa hum kusala wa la yunfiquna illa wa hum karihuna.

55Fala tujibuka amwaluhum wa la auladuhum innama yuridullahu liyuazzibahum biha fil hayati dunya wa tazhaqa anfusuhum wa hum kafiruna.

56Wa yahulifuna billahi innahum laminkum wa ma hum minkum wa lakinnahum qaumu yafuraquna.

57Lau uajiduna malujaan au magaratin au muddakhalal lawallau illaihi wa hum yajumahuna.

[Commentary continues below.]

58And among them are men who slander you in the matter of the distribution of the alms. If they are given part thereof they are pleased but if not behold, they are indignant.

59And if only they had been content with what Allah and His apostle gave them and had said, “sufficient unto us is Allah, Allah and His apostle will soon give us of his bounty, to Allah do we turn our hopes.”

60Alms are for the poor and the needy and those employed to administer it, for those whose hearts have been reconciled, for those in bondage and in debt, in the cause of Allah, and for the wayfarer, ordained by Allah and Allah is full of knowledge and wisdom.

58Wa minhum man yalumizuka fi suadaqati fa in utu minha radu wa illam yutau minha iza hum yaskhatuna.

59Wa lau annahum radu ma atahumullahu wa rasuluhu wa qalu hasubunallahu sayutinallahu min fadulihi wa rasuluhu inna ilallahi ragibuna.

60Innama suadaqatu lil fuqarai wal masakini wal amilina alaiha wal muallafati qulubuhum wa fi riqabi wal garimina wa fisabilillahi wabni sabili faridatan minallahi wallahu alimun hakimun.

[Commentary continues below.]

61Among them are men who molest the prophet and say, “He is all ear.” Say, “He listens to what is best for you, he believes in Allah, has faith in the believers, and is a mercy to those of you who believe,” but those who molest the apostle will have a grievous penalty.

62To you they swear by Allah. In order to please you, but it is more fitting that they should please Allah and His apostle if they are believers.

63Do they not know that for those who oppose Allah and His apostle is the fire of hell wherein they shall dwell. That is the supreme disgrace.

61Wa minhumul lazina yuzunan nabiyya wa yaquluna huwa uzunun qul uzunu khairil lakum yuminu billahi wa yuminu lil muminina wa rahmatul lillazina amanu minkum wallazina yuzuna rasulallahi lahum azabun alimun.

62Yahulifuna billahi lakum liyurdukum wallahu wa rasuluhu ahaqqu anyurduhu inkanu muminina.

63Alam yalamu annahu ma yuhadidillaha wa rasulahu fa anna lahu nara jahannama khalidan fiha zalikal khizyul attimu.

[Commentary continues below.]

64The hypocrites are afraid lest a surah should be sent down about them showing them what is in their hearts. Say, “Mock, but verily, Allah will bring to light all that you fear.”

65And if you question them they declare, “We were only talking idly and in play.” Say, “Was it at Allah, and His signs, and His apostle, that you were mocking?”

66Make no excuses, you have rejected faith after you had accepted it. If We pardon some of you We will punish others among you for that they are in sin.

64Yahuzarul munafiquna an tunazzala alaihim suratun tunabbiuhum bima fi qulubihim quli sutahziu innallaha mukhurijun ma tahuzaruna.

65Wa lain saaltahum layaqulunna innama kunna nakhudu wa nalabu qulu abillahi wa ayatihi wa rasulihi kuntum tasutahuziuna.

66La tataziru qadu kafarutum bada imanikum in nafu an tuaifatin minkum nuazzib tuaifatan bi annahum kanu mujurimina.

[Commentary continues below.]

67The hypocrites, men and women, with each other, they enjoin evil and forbid what is just and are close with their hands. They have forgotten Allah, so He has forgotten them. Verily, the hypocrites are rebellious and perverse.

68Allah has promised the hypocrites men and women and the rejecters of faith the fire of hell, therein shall they dwell, sufficient is it for them, for them is the curse of Allah and an enduring punishment.

67Al munafiquna wal munafiqatu baduhum min badin yamuruna bil munkari wa yanuhauna anil marufi wa yaqubiduna aidiyahum nasullaaha fa nasiyahum innal munafiqina humul fasiquna.

68Waadallahul munafiqina wal munafiqati wal kuffara nara jahannama khalidina fiha hiya hasubuhum wa laanahumullahu wa lahum azabum muqimun.

[Commentary continues below.]

69As in the case of those before you, they were mightier than you in power and more flourishing in wealth and children. They had their enjoyment of their portion, and you have of yours as did those before you, and you indulge in idle talk as they did. They, their works are fruitless in this world and in the hereafter and they will lose all spiritual good.

70Has not the story reached them of those before them? The people of Noah and Ad and Thamud, the people of Abraham, the men of Madyan, and the cities overthrown. To them came their apostles with clear signs. It is not Allah who wrongs them but they wrong their own souls.

69Kallazina min qablikum kanu ashadda minkum quwwata wa aksara amwalan wa auladan fasutamtau bi khalaqihim fastamtatum bi khalaqikum kama sutamtaal lazina min qabulikum bi khalaqihim wa khudtum kallazina khadu ulaika habituatu amaluhum fi dunya wal akhirahti ulaika humul khasiruna.

70Alam yatihim nabaul lazina min qablihim qaumi Nuhin wa Adin wa Samuda wa qaumi Ibraima wa ashabi Madyana wal mutafikati atathum rusuluhum bil bayyinati fama kanallahu liyattulimahum wa lakin kanu anfusahum yattulimuna.

[Commentary continues below.]

71And the believers men and women are protectors one of another, they enjoin what is just and forbid what is evil, they observe regular prayers, practice regular charity, and obey Allah and His apostle. On them will Allah pour His mercy, for Allah is exalted in power, wise.

72And Allah has promised to believers, men and women, gardens under which rivers flow to dwell therein and beautiful mansions in gardens of everlasting bliss. But the greatest bliss in the good pleasure of Allah, that is the supreme felicity.

73O Prophet, strive hard against the unbelievers and the hypocrites and be firm against them. Their abode is hell an evil refuge indeed.

71Wal muminuna wal muminatu baduhum auliyau badin yamuruna bil marufi wa yanuhauna anil munkari wa yuqimuna sualata wa yutuna zakata wa yutiunallaha wa rasulahu ulaika sayaru hamuhumullahu innallaha azizun hakimun.

72Waadallahul muminina wal muminati jannatin tajuri min tahutihal anharu khalidina fiha wa masakina tuayyibatan fi jannati adnin wa ridwanum minallahi akbaru zalika huwal fauzul attimu.

73Ya ayyuhan nabiyyi jahidil kuffara wal munafiqina waguluz alaihim wa mawahum jahannamu wa bisal masiru.

[Commentary continues below.]

74They swear by Allah that they said nothing, but indeed they uttered blasphemy and they did it after accepting Islam, and they meditated a plot which they were enable to carry out, this revenge of theirs was their only return for the bounty with which Allah and His apostle had enriched them! If they repent it will be best for them, but if they turn back, Allah will punish them with a grievous penalty in this life and in the hereafter, they shall have none on earth to protect or help them.

75And among them are men who made a covenant with Allah that if He bestowed on them of His bounty they would give in charity and be truly among those who are righteous.

76But when He did bestow of His bounty, they became covetous and turned back averse.

77So He has put as a consequence hypocrisy into their hearts till the day whereon they shall meet Him, because they broke their covenant with Allah and because they lied.

74Yahulifuna billa ma qalu wa laqadu qalu kalimatal kufuri wa kafaru bada islamihim wa hammu bima lam yanalu wa ma naqamu illa an agunahumullahu wa rasuluhu min fadulihi fa inyatubu yaku khairal lahum wa inyatawallau yuazzibhumullahu azaban aliman fi dunya wal akhirahti wa ma lahum filardi mi waliyyi wa la nasirin.

75Wa minhum man aadallaha lain atana min faddulihi lana suaddaqanna wa lana kunanna mina sualihina.

76Falamma atahum min faddulihi bakhilu bihi wa tawallau wa hum muriduna.

77Fa aqabahum nifaqan fi qulubihim ila yaumi yaluqaunahu bima akhlafullaha ma waaduhu wa bima kanu yakuzibuna.

[Commentary continues below.]

78Know they not that Allah knows their secrets and their secret counsels and that Allah knows well all things unseen?

79Those who slander such of the believers as give themselves freely to charity as well as such as can find nothing to give except the fruits of their labor and throw ridicule on them Allah will throw back their ridicule on them, and they shall have a grievous penalty.

80Whether you ask for their forgiveness or not, if you ask seventy times for their forgiveness, Allah will not forgive them, because they have rejected Allah and His apostle, and Allah guides not those who are perversely rebellious.

78Alam yalamu annallaha yalamu sirrahum wa najwahum wa annallaha allamul guyubi.

79Alazina yalmizunal muttawwiina minal muminina fi sadaqati wallazina la yajiduna illa juhudahum fa yasukharuna minhum sakhirallahu minhum wa lahum azabun alimun.

80Istagufiru lahum au la tasutagufir lahum in tasutagufir lahum sabina marratan fa la yagufirallahu lahum zalika bi annahum kafaru billahi wa rasulihi wallahu la yahudil qaumal fasiqina.

[Commentary continues below.]

81Those who were left behind rejoiced in their inaction behind the back of the apostle of Allah, they hated to strive and fight with their goods and their persons in the cause of Allah, they said, “Go not forth in the heat.” Say, “The fire of hell is fiercer in heat.” If only they could understand.

82Let them laugh a little, much will they weep, a recompense for what they do.

83If then Allah brings you back to any of them and they ask your permission to come out, say, “Never shall you come out with me nor fight an enemy with me, for you preferred to sit inactive on the first occasion, then sit with those who lag behind.”

81Farihal mukhallafuna bi maqadihim khilafa rasulillahi wa karihu anyujahidu bi amwalihim wa anfisihim fi sabilillahi wa qalu la tanufiru fil harri qulu naru jahannama ashaddu harran lau kanu yafuqahuna.

82Faluyadduhaku qalila wal yabuku kasiran jazaam bima kanu yakusibuna.

83Fa in rajaakallahu ila tuaifatim minhum fasutazanuka lilkhuruji faqul lan takhruju maiya abadan wa lan tuqatilu maiya aduwwan innakum raditum bil quudi awwala marrahtin faqudu maal khalifina.

[Commentary continues below.]

84And do not ever pray for any of them that dies nor stand at his grave, for they rejected Allah and His apostle and died in a state of perverse rebellion.

85And let not their wealth nor their sons dazzle you, Allah’s plan is to punish them with these things in this world and that their souls may perish in their denial of Allah.

86And when a surah comes down enjoining them to believe in Allah and to strive and fight along with his apostle those with wealth and influence among them ask you for exemption and say, “Leave us behind, we would be with those who sit at home.”

84Wa la tusalli alla ahadin minhum mata abadan wa la taqum ala qaburihi innahum kafaru billahi wa rasulihi wa matu wa hum fasiquna.

85Wa la tujibuka amwaluhum wa la auladuhum innama yuridullahu anyyuazzibahum biha fi dunya wa tazuhaqa anfusuhum wa hum kafiruna.

86Wa iza unzilat suratun an aminu billahi wa jahidu maa rasulihi sutazanaka ulut tauli minhum wa qalu zaruna nakum maal qaidina.

[Commentary continues below.]

87They prefer to be with the women who remain behind at home, their hearts are sealed and so they understand not.

88But the apostle and those who believe with him strive and fight with their wealth and their persons, for them are good things: and it is they who will prosper.

89Allah has prepared for them gardens under which rivers flow to dwell therein, that is the supreme felicity.

90And there were among the desert Arabs, men who made excuses and came to claim exemption, and those who were false to Allah and His apostle sat inactive. Soon will a grievous penalty seize the unbelievers among them.

87Radu bi anyyakunu maal khawalifi wa tubia ala qulubihim fahum la yafuqahuna.

88Lakini rasulu wallazina amanu maahu jahadu bi amwalihim wa anfusihim wa ulaika lahumul khairatu wa ulaika humul mufulihuna.

89Aaddallahu lahum jannatin tajuri min tahtihal anharu khalidina fiha zalikal fauzul attimu.

90Wa jaal muazziruna minal arabi liyuzana lahum wa qaadal lazina kazabullaha wa rasulahu sayusibul lazina kafaru minhum azabun alimun.

[Commentary continues below.]

91There is no blame on those who are infirm or ill or who find no resources to spend, if they are sincere to Allah and His apostle, no ground can there be against such as do right, and Allah is always forgiving, most merciful.

92And there is no blame on those who came to you to be provided with mount and when you said, “I can find no mounts for you,” they turned back their eyes streaming with tears of grief that they had no resources wherewith to provide the expenses.

91Laisa alad duafai wa la alal maruda wa la alal lazina la yajidua ma yufiquna harajun izanasahu lillahi wa rasulihi maalal muhsinina min sabilin wallahu gafurun rahimun.

92Wa la alal lazina iza ma atauka litahumilahum quluta la ajidu ma ahumilukum alaihi tawallau wa ayunuhum tafidu minad dami hazanal la yajidu ma yunufiquna.

[Commentary continues below.]

93The ground of complaint is against such as claim exemption while they are rich. They prefer to stay with the women who remain behind, Allah has sealed their hearts, so they know not what they miss.

94They will present their excuses to you when you return to them. Say, “Present no excuses, we shall not believe you, Allah has already informed us of the true state of matters concerning you, it is your actions that Allah and His apostle will observe, in the end will you be brought back to Him who knows what is hidden and what is open, then will He show you the truth of all that you did.

95They will swear to you by Allah when you return to them that you may leave them alone. So leave them alone. For they are an abomination and hell is their dwelling place, a fitting recompense for what they did.

93Innama sabilu allal lazina yastazinunaka wa hum aguniyau radu bi anyakunu maal khawalifi wa tabaallahu alla qulubihim fahum la yalamuna.

94Yataziruna illaikum iza rajatum ilaihim qulu la tataziru lan numina lakum qad nabbaanallahu min akhubarikum wa sayarallahu amalakum wa rasuluhu summa turadduna illa alimil gaibi wa shahadati fayunabbiukum bima kuntum tamaluna.

95Sayahulifuna billahi lakum izanuqalabtum ilaihim lituridu anhum fa aridu anhum innahum rijusun wa mawahum jahannamu jazaam bima kanu yakusibuna.

[Commentary continues below.]

96They will swear unto you that you may be pleased with them but if you are pleased with them, Allah is not pleased with those who disobey.

97The Arabs of the desert are the worst in unbelief and hypocrisy and most fitted to be in ignorance of the command which Allah has sent down to his apostle, but Allah is all knowing, all wise.

98Some of the desert Arabs look upon their payments as a fine and watch for disasters for you, on them be the disaster of evil, for Allah is He that hears and knows all things.

96Yahulifuna lakum litarudauanhum fa in tarudau anhum fa innallaha la yaruda anil qaumil fasiqina.

97Al arabu ashaddu kufura wa nifaqa wa ajudaru alla yalamu hududa ma anzalallahu ala rasulihi wallahu alimun hakimun.

98Wa minal arabi ma yattakhizu ma yunufiqu magurama wa yatarabbasu bikumud dawaira alaihim dairatu saui wallahu samiun alimun.

[Commentary continues below.]

99And some of the desert Arabs believe in Allah and the last day and look on their payments as pious gifts bringing them nearer to Allah and obtaining the prayers of the apostle. Indeed they bring them nearer, soon will Allah admit them to His mercy, for Allah is always forgiving, most merciful.

100And the vanguard, the first of those who forsook their homes, and of those who gave them aid and those who follow them in all good deeds well pleased is Allah with them, as are they with him, for them has He prepared gardens under which rivers flow to dwell therein for ever. That is the supreme felicity.

101And certain of the desert Arabs round about you are hypocrites as well, among the Medina folk, they are obstinate in hypocrisy, you know them not, We know them, twice shall We punish them and in addition, shall they be sent to a grievous penalty.

99Wa minal arabi man yuminu billahi wal yaumil akhiri wa yattakhizu ma yunfiqu qurubatin indallahi wa sualawati rasuli ala innaha qurubatul lahum sayudu khiluhumullahu fi rahmatihi innallaha gafurun rahimun.

100Wa sabiqunal awwaluna minal muhajirina wal ansuari wallazina tabauhum bi ihsanin radiyallahu anhum wa radu anhu wa aadda lahum jannutin tajuri min tahtihal anharu khalidina fiha abadan zalikal fauzul attimu.

101Wa mimman haulakum minal arabi munafiquna wa min ahlil madinati maradu ala nifaqi la talamuhum nahnu nalamuhum sanuazzibuhum marrataini summa yuradduna illa azabin attimin.

[Commentary continues below.]

102And others have acknowledged their wrongdoings, they have mixed an act that was good with another that was evil. Perhaps Allah will turn unto them for Allah is always forgiving, most merciful.

103Of their goods take alms so that you might purify and sanctify them, and pray on their behalf. Verily, your prayers are a source of security for them, and Allah is one who hears and knows.

104Do they not know that Allah does accept repentance from His votaries and receives their gifts of charity and that Allah is verily, He the always returning, most merciful?

102Wa akharuna tarafu bi zunubihim khalatu amalan sualihan wa akhara sayyian asallahu anyyatuba alaihim innallaha gafurun rahimun.

103Khuzu min amwalihim suadaqatan tutuahhiruhum wa tuzakkihim biha wa salli alaihim inna sualataka sakanul lahum wallahu samiun alimun.

104Alam yalamu annallaha huwa yaqubalu taubata an ibadihi wa yakhuzu suadaqati wa annallaha huwa tawwabu rahimun.

[Commentary continues below.]

105And say, “Work, soon will Allah observe your work and His apostle and the believers, soon will you be brought back to the knower of what is hidden and what is open, then will He show you the truth of all that you did.”

106And there are others held in suspense for the command of Allah, whether He will punish them or turn in mercy to them, and Allah is all knowing, wise.

107And there are those who put up a mosque by way of mischief and infidelity to disunite the believers and in preparation for one who warred against Allah and His apostle before. They will indeed swear that their intention is nothing but good, but Allah does declare that they are certainly liars.

105Wa qulu imalu fasayarallahu amalakum wa rasuluhu wal muminuna wa saturadduna ila alimil gaibi wa shahadati fayunabbiukum bima kuntum tamaluna.

106Wa akharuna murujauna li amurillahi imma yuazzibuhum wa imma yatubu alaihim wallahu alimun hakimun.

107Wallazina takhazu masujidan dirara wa kufuran wa tafuriqan bainal muminina wa irusada liman haraballaha wa rasulaha min qabulu wa layahulifunna in aradna illal husuna wallahu yashhadu innahum lakazibuna.

[Commentary continues below.]

108Never stand forth therein. There is a mosque whose foundation was laid from the first day on piety, it is more worthy of your standing forth therein. In it are men who love to be purified, and Allah loves those who make themselves pure.

109Which then is best? he that lays his foundation on piety to Allah and His good pleasure, or he that lays his foundation on an undermined sand cliff, ready to crumble to pieces? And it does crumble to pieces with him into the fire of hell. And Allah guides not people that do wrong.

110The foundation of those who so build is never free from suspicion and shakiness in their hearts until their hearts are cut to pieces. And Allah is all knowing, wise.

108La taqumu fihi abadan lamasujidun ussisa ala taquwa min awwali yaumin ahaqqu an taqama fihi rijalun yuhibbuna ayatatahharu wallahu yuhibbul muttuahhirina.

109Afaman assasa bunyanahu ala taquwa minallahi wa riduwanin khairun amman assasa bunyanahu ala shafa jurufin harin fanuhara bihi fi nari jahannama wallahu la yahudil qauma tualimina.

110La yazalu bunyanuhumul lazi banau ribatan fi qulubihim illa an taqattaa qulubuhum wallahu alimun hakimun.

[Commentary continues below.]

111Allah has purchased of the believers their persons and their good, for theirs is the garden, they fight in His cause and slay and are slain, a promise binding on Him in truth through the Law, the Gospel, and the Qur’an, and who is more faithful to his covenant than Allah? Then rejoice in the bargain which you have concluded, that is the achievement supreme.10

112Those that turn in repentance, that serve Him and praise Him, that wander in devotion to the cause of Allah, that bow down and prostrate themselves in prayer, that enjoin good and forbid evil, and observe the limits set by Allah. So proclaim the glad tidings to the believers.

111Innalla hashtara minal muminina anfusahum wa amwalahum bi anna lahumul jannahta yuqatiluna fi sabilillahi fa yaqutuluna wa yuqutaluna wadan alaihi haqqan fi Taurati wal Injili wal Quraani wa man aufa bi ahdihi minallahi fastabshiru bi baiikumul lazi bayatumu bihi wa zalika huwal fauzulattimu.

112Attaibunal abidunal hamiduna saihuna rakiuna sajidunala amiruna bil marufi wa nahuna anil munkari wal hufizuna li hududillahi wa bashshiril muminina.

10. The prophet of Islam and his companions are forbidden to pray for the pagans. The Bibles enjoins on all believers to intercede for their unbelieving. Jude 1:20‑23; But ye, beloved, building up yourselves on your most holy faith, praying in the Holy Ghost, Keep yourselves in the love of God, looking for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal life. And of some have compassion, making a difference: And others save with fear, pulling them out of the fire; hating even the garment spotted by the flesh. Paul, reflecting on the life of the Jews had this to say in Romans 10:1;

Brethren, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for Israel is, that they might be saved. In the economy of God, He does not want any to perish according to 2 Peter For this reason prayers must be said even for the conversion of pagans.3:9: The Lord is not slack concerning his promise, as some men count slackness; but is longsuffering to us ward, not willing that any should perish, but that all should come to repentance.

113It is not fitting for the prophet and those who believe that they should pray for forgiveness for pagans even though they be of kin after it is clear to them that they are companions of the fire.

114And Abraham prayed for his father’s forgiveness only because of a promise he had made to him. But when it became clear to him that he was an enemy to Allah he dissociated himself from him, for Abraham was most tender-hearted, forbearing11

115And Allah will not mislead a people after He has guided them in order that He may make clear to them what to fear, for Allah hath knowledge of all things.

113Ma kana li nabiyyi wallazina amanu an yasutagufiru lil mushrikina wa lau kanu uli qurba min badi ma tabayyana lahum annahum assuhabul jahimi.

114Wa ma kana sutigufaru Ibrahima li abihi illa am mauidatin waadaha iyyahu falamma tabayyana lahu annahu aduwwul lillahi tabarraa minhu inna Ibrahima la awwahun halimun.

115Wa ma kanallahu liyuddilla qauman bada izu hadahum hatta yubayyina lahum ma yattaquna innallha bi kulli shaiin alimun.

11. In the previous verse Allah had said that pagans are not to be prayed for even if they are relatives, however in this verse we read of Abraham praying for his father who was idolatrous. Now according to the Qur’an prophets are sinless because they only say what God tells them to. If that is indeed a factor, then, did God tell Abraham to pray for his father or did he do it on his own, and if he did it on his own, what is the guarantee that others did not do likewise?

[Commentary continues below.]

116Unto Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth. He gives life and He takes it. Except for Him you have no protector nor helper.

117Allah turned with favor to the prophet, the Muhajirs and the Ansar who followed Him in a time of distress after that the hearts of a part of them had nearly swerved but He turned to them, for He is unto them kind, merciful.12

118And to the three who were left behind, they felt guilty to such a degree that the earth seemed constrained to them for all its speciousness and their souls seemedstraitened to them and they perceived that there is no fleeing from Allah and no refuge but to Himself. Then He turned to them that they might repent, for Allah is always returning, merciful.

116Innallaha lahu mulku samawati walardi yuhyi wa yumitu wa ma lakum min dunillahi min waliyyin wa la nasirin.

117Laqadu taballahu ala nabiyyi wal muhajirina wal anussari lazina tabaahu fi saatil usurati min badi ma kada yazigu qulubu fariqin minhum summa tabaalaihim innahu bihim raufun rahimun.

118Wa alla salasati lazina khullifu hatta iza daqatu alaihimul ardu bima rahubatu wa daqatu alaihim anfusuhum wa tuannu alla malujaa minallahi illa ilaihi summa tuba alaihim liyatubu innallaha huwa tawwabu rahimu.

12. The Ansars are Muhammad’s hatchet men, more or less his chief executioners, however, on this particular campaign, three of them chose to stay behind. The campaign was one of their most difficult ones and Muhammad and his men took the action of the Ansars as betrayal and so for fifty days they were forbidden fellowship with the others until Muhammad was convinced that they had genuinely repented and they were shown mercy by their fellow Muslims. The three, according to George Sale are Caab Ebn Malek, Helal Ebn Omeyya and Merara Ebn Rabi. they could devote themselves to studies in religion and admonish the people when they return to them that thus they (may learn) to guard themselves (against evil).

119O you who believe, fear Allah and be with those who are true.

120It was not fitting for the people of Medina and the bedouin Arabs of the neighborhood to refuse to follow Allah’s apostle nor to prefer their own lives to his. Because nothing could they suffer or do but was reckoned to their credit as a deed of righteousness, whether they suffered thirst or fatigue or hunger in the cause of Allah, or trod paths to raise the ire of the unbelievers or received any injury, whatever from an enemy, for Allah suffers not the reward to be lost of those who do good.

119Ya ayyuhal lazina amanu taqullaha wa kunu maa suadiqina.

120Ma kana li ahlil madinati wa man haulahum minal arabi ayyatakhallafu an rasulillahi wa la yarugabu bi anfusihim an nafusihi zalika bi annahum la yusibuhum tuamaun wa la nasabun wa la makhumasatun fi sabilillahi wa la yatauna mautian yagi ttul kuffara wa la yanaluna min aduwwin nailan illa kutiba lahum bihi amalun sualihun innallaha la yudiu ajural muhsinina.

 

121And they could not spend anything, small or great, nor cut across a valley, but the deed is inscribed to their credit, that Allah might requite their deed with the best possible reward.

122Nor should the believers all go forth together, if a contingent from every expedition remained behind they could devote themselves to studies in religion and admonish the people when they return to them that thus they may learn to guard themselves against evil.

123O you who believe, fight the unbelievers who gird you about and let them find firmness in you, and know that Allah is with those who fear him.

121Wa la yunfiquna nafaqatan sagirata wa la kabiratan wa la yaqtaana wadiyan illa kutiba lahum liyajziyahumullahu ahusana ma kanu yamaluna.

122Wa ma kanal muminuna liyanufiru kaffahtan fa lau la nafara min kulli firuqatin minhum tuaifatul liyatafaqqahu fi dini wa liyunziru qaumahum izu rajau ilaihim laallahum yahuzaruna.

123Ya ayyuhal lazina amanu qatilu lazina yalunakum minal kuffari walyajidu fikum gilutuahtan walamu annallaha maal muttaqina.

 

124And whenever there comes down a surah, some of them say, “Which of you has had his faith increased by it?” Yes, those who believe their faith is increased and they do rejoice.

125And those in whose hearts is a disease it will add doubt to their doubt and they will die in a state of unbelief.

124Wa iza ma unuzilatu suratun fa minhun man yaqulu ayyukum zadathu hazihi imanan fa amma lazina amanu fa zadathum imana wa hum yasutabushiruna.

125Wa amma lazina fi qulubihim maradun fa zadathum rijusan ila rijusihim wa matu wa hum kafiruna.

 

126Do they not see that they are tried every year once or twice? Yet they turn not in repentance and they take no heed.

127And whenever there comes down a surah they look at each other, saying, “Does anyone see you?” Then they turn aside, Allah has turned their hearts from the light, for they are a people that understand not.

128Now has come unto you an apostle from among yourselves, it grieves him that you should perish, ardently anxious is he over you, to the believers is he most kind and merciful.

129But if they turn away, say, “Allah is sufficient for me. There is no allah but He. On Him is my trust, He is the Lord of the throne, supreme.

126Awala yarauna annahum yufutanuna fi kulli amin marratan au marrataini summa la yatubuna wa la hum yazzakkaruna.

127Wa iza ma unzilatu suratun natuara baduhum illa badin hal yarakum min ahadin summa ansuarafu suarafallahu qulubahum bi annahum qaumul la yafuqahuna.

128Laqadu jaakum rasulun min anfusikum azizun alaihi ma anittum harisun alaikum bil muminina raufun rahimun.

129Fa in tawallau fa qulu hasubiyallahu la ilaha illa huwa alaihi tawakkalutu wa huwa rabbul arushil attimi.

 

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